Holography and Hologram Recording Materials

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Holography and holographic recording materials used

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Holography is a brand new camera expertise, it is using light interference and diffraction phenomena, recorded the subject of the mirrored wave amplitude and phase, and all other information in photography. Holographic recording material as a hologram recording medium has an extremely important role. More current research, there are three: the silver halide holographic model, DCG (dichromated gelatin) Dry Plate and photosensitive polymer materials. Whereby the silver halide holographic model Is the primary holographic recording supplies used.

Hologram is recorded by laser beam

1.1 The idea of holography

Holography is a brand new photographic technology, which is the usage of the phenomenon of interference and diffraction of sunshine, the topic document is reflected wave amplitude and phase, and all the data of the new photography.

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1.2 Holographic process

Holographic process is generally divided into two steps: holographic recording and image reproduction. Holographic recording course of: the laser beam into two beams, a laser beam projected straight on the photographic movie, referred to as the reference beam, and the other laser beam projected on the thing, reflected or transmitted by an object, it carries information about an object, referred to as the object beam; object beam is projected on the processed photographic film in the identical area; the item beam and the reference beam on the photosensitive film on the coherent superposition of interference fringe is shaped, constitutes a hologram.

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Image copy: irradiating with a laser hologram, which frequency and transmission of laser beams and the reference beam needs to be directed precisely the identical, then the item may be reproduced on a stereoscopic image. People from a distinct perspective, you'll be able to see a special side of the article, as if seen as a real object, but can't contact an actual object.

1.3 hologram traits

Hologram has the following characteristics:

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(1) Three-dimensional picture

Stores the article wave holograms the part information, the reconstructed picture has obvious parallax feature, you can see a realistic three-dimensional object image.

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(2) Severability

Interference fringe holograms is stored within the type of distributed data of the object, so long as the presence of interference fringes of the hologram may be reproduced any a part of the complete unique picture, of course, the brightness and resolution shall be significantly reduced.

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(3) Not possible to duplicate
Photographic plate with a holographic recording may be repeated exposure, and may interfere with each other to reproduce various issues like. Of course, when each recording reference light to be totally different from the incident direction.

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(4) Reproducing
Reproducing such diffractive principle, as a result of the diffraction angle and the wavelength, so the copy light with completely different wavelengths when irradiated with a hologram, it will be enlarged or lowered in the objects.

Particular and basic photography.

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Size, its manufacturing material is silver dry version. Usually requires no less than 30cm × 40cm, most 50cm × 60cm. As dichromate gelatin (DCG) holograms, although manufacturing may be very troublesome, but this hologram excessive brightness and readability, for a wide range of small works of art constructed from beautiful as items have nice market potential. The second category is S. A. Benton rainbow hologram. The invention is to determine the optical holography cornerstone of industrialization. This can be a transmissive display hologram reconstruction image exists as a result of the rainbow colours and the name. Comply after emerging analysis results, as will be observed in the 360 ??° cylindrical dynamic objects like rainbow holograms, with a purpose to improve the depth of discipline and the usage of slender cylindrical lens plus astigmatism rainbow holography, and false coloration coding and true shade rainbow hologram and so on. As commercial promoting or art show, rainbow hologram market in pursuit of large-format, normally 60cm × 80cm cm or lm square.

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1.4.1 The concept of the rainbow hologram

Rainbow laser hologram is recorded as white monochrome photographic reproduction techniques.

1.4.2 rainbow hologram manufacturing course of

Comparison with the hologram, the rainbow hologram recording gentle path added a slit, which is to restrict the replica mild, decreasing blur reproduced image. Rainbow holography actually slit holography expertise mixed with a technology. Rainbow hologram reproduced picture as the slit within the vertical route in a spatial dispersion into rainbow colors, the human eye is thru this dispersion hologram viewing window to look at, when the attention moves in the vertical course, the order observed shade adjustments in accordance with the rainbow colour sequence monochrome image. Image recording and image copy.

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1.4.three rainbow hologram characteristics
Simple to copy a rainbow hologram, easy to observe, high brightness, three-dimensional and other advantages. There are two methods to copy: Copy and molded optical copy, which makes molded rainbow hologram replication technology is broadly used

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1.5 Holograms
Holography Due to its three-dimensional nature, massive reminiscence capacity and different characteristics, broadly utilized in industrial nondestructive testing, the sphere of security, ultrasonic holography, holographic microscopy, holographic memory, holographic films and holographic tv and other fields.

Two holographic recording materials
Ideal recording material ought to be used in the publicity wavelength of a high sensitivity, excessive decision, low noise, and a linear curve. From a production standpoint also needs to be capable of be reused and has the advantages of cheap. Holographic recording materials performance reflects several indicators, including the next gadgets:

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(1) Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the recording materials, after receiving the motion of sunshine, the sensitivity level of the reaction;

(2) Spectral sensitivity: every recording medium has its absorption band, a wavelength in the absorption band from the photochemical impact to, which is the spectral sensitivity;

(3) the diffraction efficiency: the diffraction efficiency is outlined because the hologram diffraction imaging and reproduction illumination gentle flux ratio of the total flux;

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(4) Resolution: The decision of the recording material usually 1mm lengthy traces will be recognized in the log to point that the recording materials will be recorded by the spatial modulation of the publicity intensity of the maximum spatial frequency, the unit is 1/mm;

(5) Noise: The noise of the recording materials is the material itself is non-uniform grain dimension and surface roughness attributable to the scattered light. Recording materials at present used in 3 ways: the silver halide holographic model, DCG gelatin and photopolymer kind material.

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Silver halide hologram

The silver halide mild-delicate material is most commonly used as a holographic materials, which has high sensitivity, extensive spectral response, excessive resolution, and versatility, etc., but the diffraction efficiency and low SNR. Silver halide emulsion movie into movie (movie) and a dry model (hard pieces) two, the principle structure is photosensitive layer and the movie base, also called photosensitive layer emulsion layer, the extremely-effective particles of silver halide (the primary element of AgBr and AgCl) grains suspended in gelatin, plus a sensitizer product of latex, the thickness of 0.01 ~ 5μm, latex hooked up to the movie base, the movie base is customarily known as the glass
Holographic model, and to acetate film base and polyester films and other movie known as holographic film. A holographic silver halide emulsion particles within the diploma requirements of 0.03 ~ 0.09μm. Because the smaller the particle size, the decrease gentle sensitivity, so exposure holographic model of photographic plates is far larger than normal. Domestic and overseas frequent silver halide dry version.

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2.2 DCG gelatin dry plates

Dichromate gelatin is a good phase-sort recording medium, its resolution can reach 5000 traces / mm. Dichromated gelatin having a high diffraction effectivity and a excessive signal to noise ratio advantages. Drawback is low sensitivity, solely (3 ~ 7) μJ/cm2, is about one millionth of Kodak 649F. Dichromate gelatin reaction temperature and bacteria sensitive and sensitive to temperature and humidity of the atmosphere, worry of damp, the image is unstable, straightforward to get rid of, like, it needs to be saved in airtight containers, and chromium on human toxic.

2.3 photopolymer sort material

Photopolymer holographic recording embrace four important essential parts: a photoinitiator, a vinyl monomer, and a service sensitized materials. Every element has a variety of supplies could also be used. In keeping with completely different necessities, the optimum mixture could be different. Photopolymerizable is a photochemical process, within the mild irradiation, the generation of reactive free radical polymerization system, and the system was triggered from inside the aggregate impact of small molecules or monomers are mixed into large molecules or polymers. Photosensitive polymer materials mix high sensitivity, high diffraction efficiency, spectral response range, easy processing, storage stability, etc., is the head
Former research and improvement priorities. The photosensitive polymer materials from the reaction mechanism will be divided right into a photopolymerizable, photocrosslinkable-and decomposition type. They can be used for the manufacturing of relief kind or refraction sort part hologram. These three supplies are more research of the three supplies, along with the photograph-crosslinkable, inorganic photochromic supplies, liquid crystal materials, chalcogenide materials.


Holography is a new photographic techniques. Rainbow hologram has simple replication, high brightness, white copy, etc., primarily used as a template embossed hologram is widely used in optical anti-counterfeiting, brand safety, advertising and other areas, so the rainbow hologram has good market prospects. Hologram holographic recording materials as a recording medium, its analysis has nice practical value.

1.4 white show holograms
White show holograms at the moment there are two fundamental categories: the first category is the Lippmann hologram (reflection hologram). With the development of excessive-high quality recording material, some researchers and artists are continuously in pursuit of a extra sensible capturing techniques, similar to false and true colour coded 12J full shade reflection
Holograms and so on. Due to the latest record high diffraction efficiency full-color mild polymer material --- (movie) emerges, the show technology matures.

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